Resources: Shyness Reading List

The books and articles listed here are resources on shyness. This list is maintained by The Shyness Institute, a non-profit research institution dedicated to research regarding shyness, social anxiety disorder, and related anxiety disorders.

Shyness Self-Help Books

  • Anthony, M. M. (1976). Ten Simple Solutions to Shyness: How to Overcome Shyness, Social Anxiety, and Fear of Public Speaking. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
  • Bower, S. A., & Bower, G. H. (1976). Asserting yourself. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley
  • Cheek, J. M. (1990). Conquering Shyness. New York: Basic Books.
  • Burns, D. D. (1980). Feeling good, the new mood therapy. New York: New American Library.
  • Carducci, B. J. (1999). Shyness: A bold new approach. The latest scientific findings, plus practical steps for finding your comfort zone. New York: HarperCollins.
  • Gabor, D. (1983). How to start a conversation and make friends. New York: Fireside Books.
  • Johnson, D. W. (1972, 1999). Reaching out, interpersonal effectiveness and self-actualization. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
  • Leary, M. R. & Kowalski, R. M. (1995). Social Anxiety. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Markway, G. B., Carmin, C. N., Pollard, C. A., & Flynn, T. (1992). Dying of Embarrassment: Help for social anxiety and phobia. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.
  • McKay, M. & Fanning, P. (1987). Self-Esteem. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.
  • Schneier, F & Welkowitz, L. (1996). The Hidden Face of Shyness: Understanding and Overcoming Social Anxiety. New York, NY: Avon books.
  • Smith, M. J. (1975). When I say no I feel guilty. New York: Bantam Books, Inc.
  • Zimbardo, P. G. (1977; Reprinted, 1996). Shyness: what it is, what to do about it. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishers.
  • Zimbardo, P. G., & Radl, S. L. (1981). The Shy Child. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shyness Research and Treatment

  • Adler, R. B., & Towne, N. (1970). Looking out/looking in. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Alden, L., & Cappe, R. (1986). Interpersonal process training for shy clients. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 343-356). New York: Plenum.
  • Alden, L. (1987). Attributional responses of anxious individual to different patterns of social feedback: Nothing succeeds like improvement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 100-106.
  • Anderson, C. A. (1983a). The causal structure of situations: The generation of plausible causal attributions as a function of type of event situation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 185-203.
  • Anderson, C. A. (1983b). Motivational and performance deficits in interpersonal settings: The effects of attributional style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1136-1147.
  • Anderson, C. A., & Arnoult, L. H. (1985). Attributional style and everyday problems in living: Depression, loneliness, and shyness. Social Cognition, 3, 16-35.
  • Anderson, C. A., Horowitz, L. M., & French, R. d. (1983). Attributional style of lonely and depressed people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1136-1147.
  • Arkin, R. M., & Appelman, A. J. (1983). Social anxiety and receptivity to interpersonal evaluation. Motivation and Emotion, 7, 11-18.
  • Arkin, R. M., Appelman, A. J., & Burger, J. M. (1980). Social anxiety, self-presentation, and the self-serving bias in causal attribution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 23-35.
  • Arkin, R. M., Lake, E. A., & Baumgardner, A. B. (1986). Shyness and self-presentation. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 189-203). New York: Plenum.
  • Arnkoff, D. B., Glass, C. R., McKain, T., Shea, C. A., & Greenberg, J. M. (1984, August). Client predispositions to respond to cognitive and social skills treatments for shyness. In J. M. Cheek (Chair), Shyness: Personality development, social behavior, and treatment approaches. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.
  • Asendorpf, J. B. (1987). Videotape reconstruction of emotions and cognitions related to shyness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 542-549.
  • Baumgardner, A. H., & Brownlee, E. A. (1987). Strategic failure in social interaction: evidence for expectancy disconfirmation processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 525-535.
  • Beall, L. (1972). Pathologies of seriousness and the disposition to shame: theoretical relations, developmental origins and therapeutic implications. Unpublished manuscript. The Wright Institute, Berkeley, CA.
  • Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Bell, P. A., & Byrne, D. (1978). Regression-sensitization. In H. London & J. E. Exner (Eds.), Dimensions of personality. New York: Wiley, 449-485.
  • Borkovec, T. D., & Inz, J. (1990). The nature of worry in generalized anxiety disorder: A predominance of thought activity. Behavior Research and Therapy, 28(2), 153-158.
  • Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base. New York: Basic Books.
  • Breck, B. E., & Smith, S. H. (1983). Selective recall of self-descriptive traits by socially anxious and nonanxious females. Social Behavior and Personality, 11 (2), 71-76.
  • Briggs, S. R., & Cheek, J. M. (1988). On the nature of self-monitoring: problems with assessment, problems with validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 663-678.
  • Brockner, J. (1979). The effects of self-esteem, success-failure, and self-consciousness on task performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1732-1741.
  • Brodt, S. E., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1981). Modifying shyness-related social behavior through symptom misattribution.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 437-449.
  • Bruch, M. A. (1989). Familial and developmental antecedents of social phobia: issues and findings. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 37-47.
  • Bruch, M. A., Giordano, S., & Pearl, L. (1986). Differences between fearful and self-conscious shy subtypes in background and current adjustment. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 172-186.
  • Bruch, M. A., & Heimberg, R. G. (1991). Social phobia subtypes and perceived differences in familial and childhood characteristics. Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy New York, New York:
  • Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety. San Francisco: Freeman.
  • Buss, A. H. (1986a). Social behavior and personality. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
  • Buss, A. H. (1986b). Two kinds of shyness. In Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-related cognition in anxiety and motivation (pp. 65-75). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Buss, A. H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Buss, D. M., & Scheier, M. F. (1976). Self-consciousness, self-awareness, and self-attribution. Journal of Research in Personality, 10, 334-349.
  • Byrne, D. (1961). The Repression-Sensitization Scale: Rationale, reliability, and validity. Journal of Personality, 29, 463-468.
  • Cheek, J. M. (1983). The revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale. Unpublished manuscript, Wellesley College.
  • Cheek, J. M., & Busch, C. M. (1981a). The influence of shyness on loneliness in a new situation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 572-577.
  • Cheek, J. M. & Buss, A. H. (1981). Shyness and sociability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 330-339.
  • Cheek, J. M., Carpentieri, A. M., Smith, T. G., Rierdan, J., & Koff, E. (1986). Adolescent shyness. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 105-115). New York: Plenum.
  • Cheek, J. M., Melchior, L. A., & Carpentieri, A. M. (1986). Shyness and self-concept. In L. M. Hartman, & K. R. Blankstein (Eds.), Perception of self in emotional disorder and psychotherapy (pp. 113-131). New York: Plenum.
  • Clark, J. M., & Arkowitz, H. (1975). Social anxiety and self-evaluation of interpersonal performance. Psychological Reports, 36, 211-221.
  • Cook, D. R. (1985). The Shame Instrument. University of Wisconsin, Menomonie, Wisconsin.
  • Crozier, W. R. (1982). Explanations of social shyness. Current Psychological Reviews, 2, 47-60.
  • Curran, J. P., Wallander, J. L., & Fischetti, M. (1980). The importance of behavioral and cognitive factors in heterosexual-social anxiety. Journal of Personality, 43, 285-292.
  • de Rivera, J. (1978). A structural theory of the emotions. Psychological Issues, 10(40), 1-178.
  • Duval, S., & Wicklund, R. A. (1973). Effects of objective self-awareness on attribution of causality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9, 17-31.
  • Edelmann, R. J. (1985). Individual differences in embarrassment: Self-consciousness, self-monitoring and embarrassibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 6(2), 223-230.
  • Ekman, P. (1965). The differential communication of affect by head and body cues. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 726-735.
  • Ellis, R. J., & Holmes, J. G. (1982). Focus of attention and self-evaluation in social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(1), 67-77.
  • Epstein, S. (1980). The Self-concept: a review and the proposal of an integrated theory of personality. In E. Staub (Ed.), Personality: Basic Issues and Current Research (pp. 81-132). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
  • Federoff, N. A., & Harvey, J. A. (1976). Focus of attention, self-esteem, and the attribution of causality. Journal of Research in Personality, 10, 336-345.
  • Fenichel, O. (1945). The psycho-analytic theory of neuroses. New York: Norton.
  • Fenigstein, A. (1984). Self-consciousness and the overperception of self as a target. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 860-870.
  • Fenigstein, A., & Levine, M. P. (1984). Self-attention, concept activation, and the causal self. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 231-245.
  • Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522-527.
  • Flett, G. L., Blankstein, K. R., & Boase, P. (1987). Self-focused attention in test anxiety and depression. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 2, 259-266.
  • Foley, F. W., Heath, R. F., & Chabot, D. R. (1986). Shyness and defensive style. Psychological Reports, 58, 967-973.
  • Franzoi, S. L. (1983). Self concept differences as a function of private self-consciousness and social anxiety. Journal of Research in Personality, 17, 275-287.
  • Fremouw, W. J., Gross, R., Monroe, J., & Rapp, S. (1982). Empirical subtypes of performance anxiety. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 179-193.
  • Freud, S. (1937). Analysis terminable and interminable (1964 ed.). London: Hogarth Press.
  • Gibbons, F. X., Smith, T. W., Ingram, R. E., Pearce, K., Brehm, S. S., & Schroeder, D. J. (1985). Self-awareness and self-confrontation: Effects of self-focused attention on members of a clinical population. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 662-675.
  • Gioiella, P. P. (1981). The relationship of relative shame/guilt proneness to the attribution of responsibility under no shame and shame arousal. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 2432B.
  • Girodo, M., Dotzenroth, S. E., & Stein, S. J. (1981). Causal attribution bias in shy males: Implications for self-esteem and self-confidence. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 5, 325-338.
  • Glass, C. R., & Furlong, M. R. (1984, August). A comparison of behavioral, cognitive, and traditional group therapy approaches for shyness. In J. M. Cheek (Chair), Shyness: Personality development, social behavior, and treatment approaches. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.
  • Glass, C. R., Merluzzi, T. V., Biever, J. L., & Larsen, K. H. (1982). Cognitive assessment of social anxiety: Development and validation of a self-assessment questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 37-56.
  • Greenwald, A. G., Bellezza, F. S., & Banaji, M. R. (1988). Is self esteem a central ingredient of the self-concept?Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 14(1), 34-45.
  • Hammerlie, F. M., & Montgomery, R. L. (1986). Self-perception theory and the treatment of shyness. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 329-342). New York: Plenum.
  • Harder, D. W. & Lewis, S. J. (1986). The assessment of shame and guilt. In J. Butcher and C. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in Personality Assessment, 6, Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
  • Henderson, L., & Zimbardo, Philip. (in press) Shyness. Encyclopedia of Mental Health. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Henderson, L., Classen, C., Spiegel, D., & Yalom, I. (1994) A present focused group treatment manual for adult survivors of child sexual abuse. Psychosocial Treatment Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Medical School, Stanford, CA.
  • Henderson, L. (1992). Self-blame and shame in shyness. Dissertation Abstracts International (University Microfilms).
  • Henderson, L. (1992). “Shyness Groups” in M. McKay & K. Paleg (Eds.), Focal psychotherapy groups. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.
  • Henderson, L., & Zimbardo, P. (1996). Shyness and control: Behavior? Impression on Others? “Second Effort?” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, Orlando, Florida.
  • Henderson, L. (1994). Differentiating self-blame in a high school sample. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America, Santa Monica, California.
  • Henderson, L. (1992). Mean MMPI profile of shyness clinic referrals. Paper presented at the 26th annual meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. Boston, Massachusetts. (in revision for Psychological Reports)
  • Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319-340.
  • Higgins, E. T., Bond, R. N., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1986). Self-discrepancies and emotional vulnerability: How magnitide accessibility, and type of discrepancy influence affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 5-15.
  • Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3, 51-76.
  • Hoblitzelle, W. (1987). Differentiating and measuring shame and guilt: The relation between shame and depression.In H. B. Lewis (Ed.), The role of shame in symptom formation (pp. 207-235). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Hope, D. A., & Heimberg, R. G. (1988). Public and private self-consciousness and social phobia. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 626-639.
  • Howell, D. C. (1982). Statistical Methods for Psychology. Boston, Massachusetts: Duxbury Press.
  • Ingram, R. E. (1990). Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: review and a conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 156-176.
  • Izard, C. E. (1971) The face of emotion. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  • James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.
  • Janoff-Bulman, R. (1979). Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: Inquiries into depression and rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1798-1809.
  • Jones, W. H., & Briggs, S. R. (1984). The self-other discrepancy in social shyness. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), The self in anxiety, stress and depression (pp. 93-107). Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Jones, W. H. & Briggs, S. R., & Smith, T. G. (1986). Shyness: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(3), 629-639.
  • Jones, W. H. & Carpenter, B. N. (1986). Shyness, social behavior, and relationships. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 329-342). New York: Plenum.
  • Jones, W. H., Cavert, C., & Indart, M. (1983). Impressions of Shyness. Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association Anaheim, California:
  • Jones, E. E., & Davis, K. E. (1965). From acts to dispositions: The attribution process in person perception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology New York: Academic Press.
  • Kagan, J. (1984). The idea of emotion in human development. In C. E. Izard, J. Kagan, & R. B. Zajonc (Eds.), Emotions, cognition & behavior (pp. 38-72). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kagan, J. (1988). Temperamental contributions to social behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 668-674.
  • Kagan, J., & Reznick, J. S. (1986). Shyness and temperament. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 81-90). New York: Plenum.
  • Kaufman, G. (1985). Shame: The power of caring (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman Books.
  • Kaufman, G. (1989). Psychology of shame: Theory and treatment of shame-based syndromes. New York: Springer.
  • Kelley, H. H. (1973). Causal schemata and the attribution process. American Psychologist, 28, 107-123.
  • Koestner, R., Zuroff, D. C., & Powers, T. A. (1991). Family origins of adolescent self-criticism and its continuity into adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2), 191-197.
  • Kroger, W. S., & Fezler, W. D. (1976). Hypnosis and behavior modification: imagery conditioning. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company.
  • Lake, E. A., & Arkin, R. M. (1985). Reactions to objective and subjective interpersonal evaluation: the influence of social anxiety. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 3, 143-160.
  • Lazarus, R. S., Kanner, A. D., & Folkman, S. (1980). Emotions: A cognitive phenomenological analysis. In R. Plutchik, & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience (pp. 189-217).
  • Leary, M. R. (1986). The impact of interactional impediments on social anxiety and self-presentation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 122-135.
  • Lennox, R. D., Welch, L., Wolfe, R., Zimmerman, B., & Dixon, W. (1987). Assessment of self-consciousness.Representative Research in Social Psychology, 17, 53-73.
  • Leung, A. W., Heimberg, R. G., Holt, C. S., & Bruch, M. A. (1991). Social Anxiety and perception of early parenting among American, Chinese American, and social phobic samples: A test of etiological hypotheses. Paper presented at the meetings of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New York, New York.
  • Lewis, H. B. (1971). Shame and guilt in neurosis. New York: International Universities Press.
  • Lewis, H. B. (1979). Shame in depression and hysteria. In C. E. Izard (Ed.), Emotions in personality and psychopathology (pp. 371-398). New York: Plenum.
  • Linder, L. M., & Der-Karabetian, A. (1986). Social anxiety, public self-consciousness, and variability of behavior.Psychological Reports, 59, 206.
  • Lindsay-Hartz, J. (1984). Contrasting experiences of shame and guilt. American Behavioral Scientist, 27, 689-704.
  • Lucock, M. P. & Salkovskis, P. (1988). Cognitive factors in social anxiety and its treatment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 26(4), 297-302.
  • Maddux. J. E., Norton, L. W., & Leary, M. L. (1988). Cognitive components of social anxiety: an investigation of the integration of self-presentation theory and self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6(2), 180-190.
  • Mathews, A. (1990). Why worry? The cognitive function of anxiety. Behavior Research and Therapy, 28, 455-468.
  • Mayer, F. S. (1989). Private self-consciousness, complexity of the self-schema, and personal uniqueness. Unpublished manuscript. Oberlin College, Oberlin.
  • McEwan, K. L., & Devins, G. M. (1983). Is increased arousal in social anxiety noticed by others? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 417-421.
  • Melchior, L. A., & Cheek, J. M. (1990). Shyness and anxious self-preoccupation during a social interaction. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(2), 117-130.
  • Miller, W. R., & Arkowitz, H. (1977). Anxiety and perceived causation in social success and failure experiences: disconfirmation of an attribution hypothesis in two experiments. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86, 665-668.
  • Minsky, S. (1985). Social anxiety and causal attribution for social acceptance and rejection. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 2632A.
  • Mueller, J. H., & Thompson, W. B. (1984). Test anxiety and distinctiveness of personal information. In H. M. V. Ploeg, R. Schwarzer, & C. C. Spielberger (Eds Advances in test anxiety research (pp. 21-37). Hillsdale, N. J.: Laurence Erlbaum.
  • Nasby, W. (1989a). Private and public self-consciousness and articulation of the self-schema. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 117-123.
  • Nasby, W. (1989b). Private self-consciousness, self-awareness, and the reliability of self reports. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(6), 950-957.
  • Novak, W. (1987). The measurement and construct of shame. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 4691-4692B.
  • O’Banion, K., & Arkowitz, H. (1977). Social anxiety and selective memory for affective information about the self.Social Behavior and Personality, 5, 321-328.
  • Ohman, A. (1986). Face the beast and fear the face: Animal and social fears as prototypes for evolutionary analyses of emotion. The Society for Psychophysiological Research, 23, 123-145.
  • Olson, J. M. (1988). Misattribution, preparatory information, and speech anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(5), 758-767.
  • Ortony, A., Clore, G. L., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge, MA.: Cambridge University Press.
  • Payne, A., Heimberg, R., Holt, C. S., & Mattia, J. I. (1991). Perfectionism and internal dialogue of anxiety and depression. Poster presented at the meetings of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New York, N. Y.
  • Peterson, C., Schwartz, S. M., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1981). Self-blame and depressive symptoms. Journal of personality and social psychology, 41, 253-259.
  • Phillips, G. M. (1986). Rhetoritherapy: The principles of rhetoric in training shy people in speech effectiveness. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 357-374). New York: Plenum.
  • Pilkonis, P. A. (1977a). Shyness, public and private, and its relationship to other measures of social behavior. Journal of Personality, 45, 585-595.
  • Pilkonis, P. A. (1977b). The behavioral consequences of shyness. Journal of Personality, 45, 596-611.
  • Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In R. Plutchik, & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience (pp. 3-33). New York: Academic Press.
  • Pruzinsky, T., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Cognitive and personality characteristics of worriers. Behavior Research and Therapy, 28(6), 507-512.
  • Roseman, I. J. (1985). Cognitive determinants of emotion. In P. Shaver (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (pp. 11-36). Beverly Hills: Sage.
  • Sabogal, F. (1983). Psychological consequences of causal attributions of social success and failure: an analysis in terms of social anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 3577B.
  • Scheier, M. F., Buss, A. H., & Buss, D. M. (1978). Self-consciousness, self-report of aggressiveness, and aggression.Journal of Research in Personality, 12, 133-140.
  • Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1977). Self-focused attention and the experience of emotion: Attraction, repulsion, elation, and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 625-636.
  • Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Gibbons, F. X. (1979). Self-directed attention, awareness of bodily states, and suggestibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(9), 1576-1588.
  • Schmitt, J. P. & Kurdek, L. A. (1984). Correlates of social anxiety in college students and homosexuals. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(4), 403-409.
  • Schutz, W. (1966). The interpersonal underworld. Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books.
  • Shrauger, J. S. (1982). Selection and processing of self-evaluative information: Experimental evidence and clinical implications. In G. Weary, & H. L. Mirels (Eds.), Integrations of clinical and social psychology (pp. 128-153). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Slivken, K. E., & Buss, A. H. (1984). Misattribution and speech anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 396-402.
  • Smith, T.W., Ingram, R.E., & Brehm, S.S. (1983). Social anxiety, anxious self-preoccupation and recall of self-referent information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1276-1283.
  • Smith, T. W., Ingram, R. E., & Roth, D. L. (1985). Self-focused attention and depression: Self-evaluation, affect and life stress. Motivation and Emotion, 9, 381-389.
  • Smith, R. E., & Sarason, I. G. (1975). Social anxiety and the evaluation of negative interpersonal feedback. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(3), 429.
  • Snyder, C. R., & Smith, T. W. (1986). On being “shy like a fox”: A self-handicapping analysis. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 161-172). New York: Plenum.
  • Snyder, C. R., Smith, T. W., Augelli, R. W., & Ingram, R. E. (1985). On the self-serving function of social anxiety: Shyness as a self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 970-980.
  • Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1987). Automatic activation of self-discrepancies and emotional syndromes: When cognitive structures influence affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1004-1014.
  • Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1988). Self-discrepancies as predictors of vulnerability to distinct syndromes of chronic emotional distress. Journal of Personality, 56, 685-707.
  • Tangney, J. P. (1990). Assessing Individual differences in proneness to shame and guilt: Development of the self-conscious affect and attribution inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 102-111.
  • Teglasi, H., & Fagin, S. S. (1984). Social anxiety and self-other biases in causal attribution. Journal of Research in Personality, 18, 64-80.
  • Teglasi, H., & Hoffman, M. A. (1982). Causal attributions of shy subjects. Journal of Research in Personality, 16, 376-385.
  • Tomkins, S. S. (1963). Affect/Imagery/Consciousness: II. The negative Affects. New York: Springer.
  • Tomkins, S. S. (1987). Shame. In D. L. Nathanson (Ed.), The Many Faces of Shame (pp. 133-161). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Trower, P., & Gilbert, P. (1989). New theoretical conceptions of social anxiety and social phobia. Clinical Psychology Review, 9, 19-35.
  • Turner, R. G. (1978a). Consistency, self-consciousness, and the predictive validity of typical and maximal personality measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 12, 117-132.
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